Overview Of Heart Diseases And Principal Mechanism You Need To Know In Full Detail
The heart is truly an extraordinary organ, beating more than 40 million times a year and pumping more than 7,500 liters of blood daily. In a normal life, its total output would fill three supertankers. The cardiovascular system is the first organ system to function in the uterus (approximately 8 weeks gestation); Growth cannot be sustained without a beating heart and vascular supply. And the fetus dies. When the heart fails during the postnatal life, the consequences are just as devastating.
In fact, heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for one in four of all deaths in the United States: approximately 1 death every minute, or 610,000 deaths each year ( The mortality rate is higher than all types of common cancer. Annual economic impact of Heart disease accounts for more than $ 200 billion, with ischemic heart disease accounting for more than half.
Also, about one-third of these deaths are “premature” in people under the age of 75. Therefore, the loss of productivity imposes an additional economic burden.
Overview And Pricipal Mechanism Of Heart Disease
Although a wide range of diseases can affect the cardiovascular system, the patho-physiological pathways that lead to “broken” hearts are broken down into six main mechanisms:
1- Pump Failure
In the most common situation, the heart muscle contracts weakly and the chambers do not empty properly, which is called “systolic dysfunction“. In some cases, the muscles cannot relax enough to allow ventricular filling to occur, leading to diastolic dysfunction.
2- Flow Obstruction
Wounds that prevent the valve from opening (e.g., calcified aortic valve stenosis) or cause increased pressure in the ventricular chamber (e.g., systemic hypertension or coarctation of the aorta) overload the myocardium Yes, you have to pump against the barrier.
3- Regurgitant Flow
Valve pathology that allows blood to flow back results in increased work volume and may reduce the pumping capacity of the affected chambers.
4- Shunted Flow
Defects (congenital or acquired) that improperly divert blood from one chamber to another, or from one vessel to another, cause excessive loads of pressure and volume.
5- Cardiac Conduction Disorders
Unconnected cardiac impulses or blocked transmission pathways can cause arrhythmias that slow down contractions or stop effective pumping altogether.
6- Rupture Of The Heart Or Major Vessel
Decreased blood flow (for example, a bullet wound in the thoracic aorta) can cause severe blood loss, hypotensive shock, and death.