Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which blood glucose or glucose levels rise. The hormone insulin helps move glucose from the blood to the cells, where it is used for energy.
In type 2 diabetes, your body’s cells may not respond to insulin as they should. In the later stages of the disease, your body cannot make enough insulin.
Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes causes chronic high blood glucose levels, which can lead to a number of symptoms and serious complications.
Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, your body cannot use insulin effectively to get glucose into your cells. This allows your body to rely on alternative sources of energy in your tissues, muscles and organs. It is a series of symptoms that can cause a variety of symptoms.
Type 2 diabetes can develop slowly. Its symptoms are mild and can easily be ruled out. The early symptoms appears may include:
- Constant Hunger
- Lack Of Energy
- Weight Loss
- Excessive Thirst
- Frequent Urination
- Dry Mouth
- Itchy Skin
- Blurred Vision
As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe and potentially dangerous.
If your blood glucose level has been high for a long time, symptoms may include:
- Yeast Infections
- Slow healing reduction or injury
- Dark spots on the skin, a condition known as acanthosis nigrans
- Foot pain
- Sensitivity to limitations or neuropathy
If you have two or more symptoms, you should see your doctor. Without treatment, diabetes can be fatal. Look for other symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin is a natural hormone. Builds your pancreas and releases it when you eat. Insulin helps carry blood glucose to cells throughout the body, where it is used for energy. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body becomes resistant to insulin. Your body no longer uses hormones effectively. This forces the pancreas to work harder to make more insulin.
Over time, this can damage the pancreatic cells. Over time, your pancreas may not be able to make insulin. If you don’t make enough insulin or if your body doesn’t use it effectively, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. This leaves your body cells full of energy. Doctors do not know exactly what triggered this series of events.
It may be related to the dysfunction of cells in the pancreas or cell signaling and regulation. In some people, the liver makes too much glucose. Type 2 diabetes can be a genetic disease. There is definitely a genetic risk of obesity, which increases the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes. It can also be an environmental stimulus. This is probably a combination of factors that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes
You can effectively control type 2 diabetes. Your doctor will tell you how often to check your blood glucose level. The goal is to stay within a certain limit.
Here are some tips to help you manage type 2 diabetes:
- Include foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet. Eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains will help keep your blood glucose levels stable.
- Eat at regular intervals
- Just eat until you are full.
- Control your weight and keep your heart healthy. This means keeping good carbohydrates, sweets, and animal fats to a minimum.
- Get about half an hour of aerobic activity a day to help keep your heart healthy. Exercise also helps control blood glucose.
Your doctor will tell you how to recognize the first signs of too much or too little blood sugar and what to do in each situation. They will also help you find out which foods are healthy and which are not.
Not all people with type 2 diabetes need to use insulin. If you do, it is because your pancreas does not make enough insulin on its own. It is important that you take the prescribed insulin. There are other prescription medications that can help.
Medications For Type 2 Diabetes
In some cases, lifestyle changes are enough to control type 2 diabetes. If not, there are many medications that can help. Some of these medicines are:
- Metformin, which can lower your blood glucose levels and improve your body’s response to insulin. The preferred treatment for most people with type 2 diabetes
- Sulfonylureas, which are oral medications that help your body make more insulin
- Megalitinides, a low-acting, fast-acting drug that stimulates the pancreas to release more insulin
- Thiazolidine, which makes your body more sensitive to insulin
- Dipeptyl peptides 4 inhibitors, which are mild drugs that help lower blood glucose levels
- Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, which slow down digestion and improve blood glucose levels
- Sodium glucose-2 corticosteroids (SGLT2) inhibitors, which help the kidneys restore blood glucose and prevent urination
Each of these drugs can cause side effects. It may take some time to find the best medicine or combination of medicines to treat your diabetes. If your blood pressure or cholesterol levels are a problem, you may also need medicated medications to relieve these needs.
If your body cannot make enough insulin, you may need insulin therapy. You may only need a long-acting injection that can be given in the evening, or you may need to take insulin several times a day. Learn about other medicines that can help you manage your diabetes.
Diet For Type 2 Diabetes
Diet is an important tool for keeping your heart healthy and blood glucose levels within a safe and healthy range. It doesn’t have to be complicated or unpleasant.
The recommended diet for people with type 2 diabetes is the one that everyone should follow. It boils down to a few key steps:
- Eat on time and have breakfast.
- Choose a variety of foods that are rich in nutrients and low in calories.
- Be careful not to overeat.
- Read food labels carefully.
Food And Beverages Should Be Avoid
There are some foods and beverages that you should completely limit or avoid. These include:
- Foods high in saturated or trans fat
- Organ meat, such as beef or liver
- Processed meat
- Margarine and butter
- Baked goods such as white bread, bags
- Processed snacks
- Sweet drinks, including fruit juices
- High fat dairy products
- Pasta or white rice
It is also recommended to avoid salty and fried foods. Check out this list of other foods and beverages to prevent diabetes.
Choosing Of Food
Healthy carbohydrates can provide you with fiber. There are following foods which may include:
- Whole fruit
- Non-starchy vegetables
- Beans, like beans
- Whole grains like oatmeal or quinoa
- Sweet potato
Heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid foods include:
- Flax seeds
You can get healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats from numerous foods, including:
- Oils, such as olive oil, canola oil, and peanut oil
- Nuts, such as almonds, walnuts and walnuts
While healthy fats are good for you, they are also high in calories. Moderation is key. Choosing a low-fat dairy will also check your fat intake. Find out more about diabetes medicine, from cinnamon to sherry noodles.
Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes
We may not understand the exact causes of type 2 diabetes, but we do know that certain factors can increase your risk.
Some factors are beyond your control:
- If you have a brother, sister, or parent who has type 2 diabetes, your risk is higher.
- You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, but your risk increases with age. Once you reach 45, your risk is particularly high.
- African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans (Native American, Indian, and Alaska Native) are more at risk than Caucasians.
- Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at higher risk.
You may be able to change these factors:
- Being overweight means you have more fatty tissues, which makes your cells more resistant to insulin. Excess belly fat increases your risk more than excess fat in the hips and thighs.
- If you have a blasphemous lifestyle, your risk increases. Regular exercise consumes glucose and helps cells respond better to insulin.
- Eating too much junk food or eating too much can destroy blood glucose levels.
If you have gestational diabetes or urinary tract disease, you are also at higher risk, two conditions caused by high glucose levels.
Diagnose Type 2 Diabetes
Regardless of whether you have urination or not, you should see your doctor right away if you have symptoms of diabetes. Should get Your doctor can get a lot of information from blood tests. The diagnostic test may include the following.
- Hemoglobin A1C test: This test measures the average blood glucose level over the last two to three months. You do not need to fast for this test, and your doctor can diagnose it based on the results. This is also called a glycosylated hemoglobin test.
- Fast plasma glucose test: This test shows how much glucose is in your plasma. You will need to fast for eight hours before doing so.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: During this test, blood is drawn three times: before, one hour after, and two hours after drinking a dose of glucose. Test results show how your body handles glucose before and after drinking.
If you have diabetes, your doctor will provide you with information on how to manage the disease, including:
- How to control your blood glucose level on your own
- Diet recommendations
- Physical activity recommendations
- Information about the medicines you need
You may need to see an endocrinologist who specializes in treating diabetes. You will need to see your doctor more often in the beginning to make sure.
If you do not already have an endocrinologist, the Health Line Find Care Tool can help you find a doctor in your area. Early diagnosis is key to proper management of diabetes.
Tips On How To Avoid Type 2 Diabetes
You can’t always avoid type 2 diabetes. There is nothing you can do about your genetics, race, or age. However, some lifestyle adjustments can help delay or even prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, even if you have risk factors such as diabetes.
Your diet should limit sugar and refined carbohydrates and be replaced by low glycemic whole grains, carbohydrates and fiber. Lean meat, poultry or fish provide protein. You also need heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids from certain types of fish, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. Dairy products should be low in fat.
It doesn’t matter what you eat, but how much you eat. You should be careful about the size of the portion and try to eat at the same time every day.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with dysfunction. Getting 30 minutes of aerobic exercise a day can improve your overall health. Also, try to include extra movement throughout the day.
3- Weight Control
If you are overweight, you are more likely to have type 2 diabetes. Eating a healthy, balanced diet and exercising daily should help you control your weight. If these changes do not work, your doctor may make some recommendations for safe weight loss.
These changes in diet, exercise and weight management work together to help keep your blood glucose levels at an ideal level throughout the day.
Complications Associated With Type 2 Diabetes
For many people, type 2 diabetes can be effectively managed. If not managed properly, it can affect practically all of your organs and cause serious complications, including:
- Skin problems, such as bacterial or fungal infections
- Nerve damage, or neuropathy, which can lead to a feeling of deprivation or numbness and dizziness in the extremities, as well as digestive problems such as vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation.
- Poor circulation in your legs, when you have a cut or infection makes it difficult for your legs to heal and this can lead to gangrene and foot or foot loss.
- Hearing loss
- Damage to the retina or retinopathy and damage to the eyes, which can lead to vision loss, glaucoma and cataracts.
- Heart diseases such as hypertension, narrow arteries, angina, heart attack and stroke
Hypoglycemia can occur when your blood sugar is low. Symptoms may include tremors, dizziness, and difficulty speaking. You can usually treat it with food or drink, such as fruit juice, soda, or hard candy.
Hyperglycemia can occur when blood sugar levels are high. It is usually characterized by frequent urination and increased thirst. Exercise can help lower your blood glucose levels.
Complications During And After Pregnancy
If you have gestational diabetes, you will need to monitor your condition carefully. Diabetes can be poorly controlled:
- Complicate pregnancy, labor and delivery
- Damage your child’s developing organs
- Give your child too much weight
It can also increase your child’s risk of developing diabetes.
Diabetes is associated with a number of complications. Women with diabetes are more likely to have a second heart attack than before. Women with diabetes are four times more likely to have a heart attack. Men with diabetes are 3.5 times more likely to develop erectile dysfunction (ED). Kidney damage and kidney failure can affect both men and women affected by the disease.
Type 2 Diabetes In Children
Type 2 diabetes is a growing problem in children. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), approximately 193,000 Americans under the age of 20 have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Thousands of new cases have been added. Another study found a significant increase, especially among minority races and ethnic groups.
The causes are complex, but risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:
- Being overweight or having a body mass index greater than 85%
- Your birth weight is 9 pounds or more
- Birth of a mother with diabetes during pregnancy
- Be a close family member with type 2 diabetes
- Blasphemous lifestyle
- Become an African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, Native American, or Pacific Islander
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes in children are the same as in adults. These include:
- Excessive thirst or hunger
- Increased urination
- Wounds that take time to heal
- Recurrent infections
- Blurred vision
- Dark skin areas
If they have these symptoms then immediately contact your doctor or medical consultant.
In 2018, the ADA recommended that all overweight children with additional risk factors for diabetes be tested for pre-hepatitis or type 2 diabetes, which, if left untreated, can lead to serious and even deadly complications.
Random blood glucose tests can reveal high blood glucose levels. The hemoglobin A1C test can provide more information about your average blood glucose level in a few months. Your baby may also need a fasting blood glucose test.
If your child is diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor will need to determine if he or she has type 1 or type 2 before prescribing specific treatment. You can help reduce your child’s risk by encouraging your child to eat well and be physically active on a daily basis.
Statistics On Type 2 Diabetes
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports the following statistics on diabetes in the United States.
- More than 30 million people have diabetes. Which is 10% of the population.
- One in four people is not diagnosed with diabetes.
- Urinary tract infections affect 84.1 million adults and 90% of them are unaware of it.
- Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Native American adults are twice as likely to develop diabetes as non-Hispanic white adults.
The ADA reports the following statistics:
- In 2017, direct medical costs and reduced productivity on diabetes will cost the United States 32 327 billion.
- The average medical cost for people with diabetes is about 2.2 times higher than the absence of diabetes.
- Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, either as the leading cause of death or as a leading cause of death.
The following statistics are reported by a reliable source from the World Health Organization.
- The global adult diabetes rate in 2014 was 8.5%.
- In 1980, only 4.7% of adults worldwide had diabetes.
- Diabetes directly caused about 1.6 million deaths worldwide in 2016.
- Diabetes increases the risk of heart attack and stroke in adults by almost three times.
- Diabetes is also a major cause of kidney failure.
The effects of diabetes are widespread. It has touched the lives of about half a billion people worldwide.
Managing Type 2 Diabetes
Managing type 2 diabetes requires teamwork. You will need to work closely with your doctor, but many outcomes depend on your work. Your doctor wants to check your blood regularly to determine your blood glucose level. This will help you determine how well you are coping with the illness. If you are taking medication, these tests will help you determine how well you are doing.
Because diabetes increases your risk of heart disease, your doctor will also monitor your blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. If you have symptoms of heart disease, you may need additional tests. These tests may include an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) or a cardiac stress test.
Here are some tips to help you manage your diabetes:
- Eat a balanced diet that includes non-starchy vegetables, whole grain fiber, lean protein, and non-saturated fats. Avoid unhealthy fats, sugars and simple carbohydrates.
- Gain and maintain a healthy weight.
- Exercise daily.
- Take all your medicines as recommended.
- Use a home monitoring system to check your blood glucose levels between your doctor’s visits. Your doctor will tell you how often to do this and what your goal should be.
Getting your family involved can also be helpful. Inform them of the warning signs of too much or too little blood glucose so they can help in an emergency.
Everyone in your household will benefit if they follow a healthy diet and participate in physical activity.